An Investigation of Sport Sponsorship Antecedents and Outcomes through Levels of Sponsor Prominence

ABSTRACT

Currently, global sport sponsorship is a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to show strong year-to-year growth (IEG, 2016). Additionally, the current body of sport sponsorship literature has reported the effects of salient attitudinal and behavioral constructs on sponsorship effectiveness. For example, previous studies have indicated that the perceived sincerity and attitude toward a sponsor do positively effect a consumer's behavioral intentions toward a sponsor (Speed & Thompson, 2000; Biscaia, Correia, Rosado, Ross, & Maroco, 2013). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to measure consumer attitudes and behavioral intent toward sponsor, through experimental design, when exposed to one of three hypothetical sponsorship scenarios. The hypothetical sponsors were classified by their level of national market prominence (e.g. national, regional, or local) and participants completed an online survey containing salient attitudinal and behavioral constructs. The final sample size was 1162 and were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. The final MIMIC model exhibited data-model fit very well. Results indicated that local sponsors, when covaried...

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Potential Negative Outcomes From Sponsorship For A Sport Property

Sponsorship funding has become a staple source of revenues for many sport events, but there are two types of potentially negative outcomes for properties that may be associated with it: operational risk and reputational risk. Operational risk occurs when sponsors insist on changing the rules or format of the event, or when they exercise undue influence on its content, timing, location or participants. The primary source of reputational risk is increased public sensitivity to the negative health impacts of some product categories, most prominently those of tobacco, alcohol, gambling and products that are high in fat, salt or sugar that may make it contentious for a sport property to partner with companies in these product classes. Similar controversy from public sensitivity may emerge around issues of corporate social responsibility, as expectations grow regarding the impact of a company’s actions on society. Reputational risk also may emanate from over commercialization of an event, since this may erode “fan equity”, i.e. the passion of fans who traditionally have supported it.

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The Ultimate Guide to Blog and Podcast Sponsorship

Introduction

It’s an exciting time to be a content creator online. We’re part of this brave new world where individuals have a huge voice and can sway consumers to purchase products, use services, and spend their time in certain ways. In the past, few individuals could influence the masses in these ways. Now, anyone has this opportunity by starting a blog or podcast and building an audience. Businesses are starting to realize just how powerful bloggers and podcasters really are. They’re very interested in opportunities to leverage this influence to reach consumers. This wasn’t always the case. In the past, even if you had a large audience, companies would laugh at the thought of spending advertising money with an individual blogger or podcaster. I’ve been blogging since 2006 and working online even before that, so I’ve seen firsthand just how sponsorship opportunities have changed...

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Sport Sponsorship As An Image Development Opportunity For New Brands

Abstract

Brand managers are increasingly using sport sponsorships as a marketing communications vehicle. While brand exposure to a target audience is a primary sponsorship goal, many firms also believe a sport association can be an effective way to enhance brand image. This paper attempts to add to our understanding of this topic by examining the role that sponsorships may play in helping to establish the identity of a brand that is new to the marketplace. Specifically, image transfer effects from sport to brand in the case of a new brand were explored. A second goal of the study was to assess the moderating effect that sponsorship level may have on potential image transfer. With the assistance of previous research in the area of brand associations, schema theory, and congruity theory, hypotheses were developed and tested via two experiments. The experimental results indicated that an announced sponsorship possesses the ability to influence initial image perceptions for a new brand.

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Who Sponsors Whom and Why? An Empirical Investigation of Sports Sponsorships

Abstract

This paper applies a two-sided matching model to investigate the formations of sports sponsorships using a dataset containing the shirt sponsorships from 43 English football clubs during the period from 1990 to 2010. We find that sponsorships become less valuable as the distance between the club and the sponsor’s head office grows and that better-performing clubs can attract more distant sponsors. In addition, there is an assortative matching between a club’s attendance and a sponsor’s revenue. Based on the estimates from the two-sided matching model, we simulate the counterfactual matching outcomes if sponsorships on alcohol and gambling are banned. Our estimates suggest that such bans will not have the biggest impact on the (relatively successful) clubs that currently have alcohol and gambling sponsors. Instead, it is clubs with low attendance and clubs in low income, less populated areas will be most affected.

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