An Investigation of Sport Sponsorship Antecedents and Outcomes through Levels of Sponsor Prominence


Currently, global sport sponsorship is a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to show strong year-to-year growth (IEG, 2016). Additionally, the current body of sport sponsorship literature has reported the effects of salient attitudinal and behavioral constructs on sponsorship effectiveness. For example, previous studies have indicated that the perceived sincerity and attitude toward a sponsor do positively effect a consumer's behavioral intentions toward a sponsor (Speed & Thompson, 2000; Biscaia, Correia, Rosado, Ross, & Maroco, 2013). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to measure consumer attitudes and behavioral intent toward sponsor, through experimental design, when exposed to one of three hypothetical sponsorship scenarios. The hypothetical sponsors were classified by their level of national market prominence (e.g. national, regional, or local) and participants completed an online survey containing salient attitudinal and behavioral constructs. The final sample size was 1162 and were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. The final MIMIC model exhibited data-model fit very well. Results indicated that local sponsors, when covaried...

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Potential Negative Outcomes From Sponsorship For A Sport Property

Sponsorship funding has become a staple source of revenues for many sport events, but there are two types of potentially negative outcomes for properties that may be associated with it: operational risk and reputational risk. Operational risk occurs when sponsors insist on changing the rules or format of the event, or when they exercise undue influence on its content, timing, location or participants. The primary source of reputational risk is increased public sensitivity to the negative health impacts of some product categories, most prominently those of tobacco, alcohol, gambling and products that are high in fat, salt or sugar that may make it contentious for a sport property to partner with companies in these product classes. Similar controversy from public sensitivity may emerge around issues of corporate social responsibility, as expectations grow regarding the impact of a company’s actions on society. Reputational risk also may emanate from over commercialization of an event, since this may erode “fan equity”, i.e. the passion of fans who traditionally have supported it.

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City of Long Beach Library Services


The Long Beach Public Library is committed to meeting the learning and information needs of our culturally diverse and dynamic population. We provide quality library services through a professional staff that is responsive, expert and who take pride in providing public service. We offer a wide selection of resources and materials representing all points of view. We support learning for a lifetime, intellectual curiosity and free and equal access to information.

Core Services:

• Innovatively provide a full range of library materials and services to the general public
• Ensure that all people have free and convenient access to all library resources and services that might enrich their lives
• Provide productive learning for a lifetime, reading and enrichment opportunities for our community
• Effectively utilize specialized library technology in the selection, organization and delivery of information, including electronic and online education and information resources

FY 17 Focus:

The Library Services Department is focused on implementing innovative service models at all libraries,

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Satellite Image Eavesdropping: A Multidisciplinary Science Education Project


Amateur reception of satellite images gathers a wide number of concepts and technologies which makes it attractive as an educational tool. We here introduce the reception of images emitted from NOAA series low-altitude Earth-orbiting satellites. We tackle various issues including the identification and prediction of the pass time of visible satellites, building of the radio-frequency receiver and the antenna after modelling its radiation pattern, and then demodulating the resulting audio signal for finally displaying an image of the Earth as seen from space.

1. Introduction

Low Earth-orbiting weather satellites continuously transmit radio-frequency signals encoding images of the Earth as seen from space. We describe here the successive steps for receiving these images, including • a presentation of the various kinds of satellites that can be listened at,
• the characteristics of their orbits and the calculation of consequent visibility duration over a given point on Earth (i.e., the time we have to get the image) as well as of the pass dates and times (i.e.,

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I Do Not Take Rejection Well

I do not take rejection well at all. I have had a crush on a man for a long time, even though we have never talked to each other. For a long period of time he would look at me and give me signals that he liked me, but that has since stopped. I have tried to think of someone else who I might like, but somehow my mind always seems to wander back to this man. Part of me wants to stop liking him and move on, but I don’t know how. I’m afraid to tell anyone about this, because once I spoke of things to a friend, but when we parted ways she told everybody everything I had told her in confidence. This usually brings down my self-confidence. My parents say that they worry that I have emotional issues and want me to see a psychologist instead of a therapist. Why? I have emotional issues, not psychological issues!

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Personality, Context, and Resistance to Organizational Change

The term resistance to change is used frequently in the research and practitioner literature on organizational change, usually as an explanation for why efforts to introduce large-scale changes in technology, production methods, management practices, or compensation systems fall short of expectations, or fail altogether. Despite the popularity of the term, a number of works (e.g., Dent & Goldberg, 1999; Merron, 1993) suggested to abandon it in the claim that it misrepresents what really happens in the change dynamic. According to Dent and Goldberg (1999), organizational members resist negative consequences (e.g., losing one’s job) and not necessarily change in itself. Therefore, the belief that people resist change hinders organizations’ chances of understanding and dealing with real organizational problems. Similarly, Nord and Jermier (1994) argue that the term is often used as part of an agenda that may overshadow employees’ legitimate reasons for objecting to change. However, according to Nord and Jermier, rather than ‘‘resist resistance’’ and abandon the concept, researchers should try to better address employees’ subjective experiences...

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Draft Manual On HF Data Link (HFDL) Technical Details


1.1 The purpose of this manual is to provide additional technical details for the link and subnet work layers of the HF data link (HFDL) system. These specifications were developed by the AMCP in conjunction with the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) which are incorporated in Annex 10, Volume III, Part I, Chapter 11. States should ensure that, in the interest of interoperability, HFDL systems are operated in accordance with these specifications.

1.2 ICAO will continue to develop the material in this manual through the appropriate channels. Due account will be taken of the need to ensure, to the maximum extent practical, compatibility with the current specifications with a view to avoid the requirement to retrofit aircraft with new systems.


2.1 Reliable link service (RLS) protocol
Table 2-1. Information held by the HFDL aircraft and ground station sub-systems

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Non Incumbent Competition: Mergers Involving Constraining and Prospective Competitors


Over the past thirty years, merger analysis by the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") and the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department ("DOJ") has been significantly improved by several developments. More sophisticated use of concentration-share thresholds, the theory of unilateral effects, more explicit standards for evaluating entry, and the treatment of efficiencies, among other changes, have made successive versions of the Merger Guidelines a better reflection of underlying economics, a more precise enforcement tool, and more helpful to businesses and to the courts. With respect at least to one important area of concern, however, current analysis of mergers has not only failed to advance but, indeed, has regressed. That area is commonly known, but not well described, by the term "potential competition." The classic form of a merger involving a "potential competitor" concerns an incumbent Firm A that merges with or acquires Firm B...

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A Review of Defensive Strategies Used in Hostile Takeovers

Looking at these mind boggling and record breaking numbers and dollar amounts of the merger transactions in 1995, one tends to question himself WHY? The answer is, 'To restructure". With the real economic growth hovering between two and three percent, how can one possibly create that additional value needed for double-digit growth. In this era of globalization, for companies to maintain their competitiveness in regional and global markets within the parameters set by government negotiated "managed trade agreements", they simply have to restructure. A few of the restructuring tools include mergers & acquisitions, refinancing, management realignment, leveraged buyouts, and employees stock ownership plans. This thesis is intended to review the empirical data on previous mergers and acquisitions (involuntary or hostile) while exemplifying the five most targeted industries either in terms of their total takeover value or their numerical value of the deals struck. These industries include...

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Discrimination and Outrage: The Migration From Civil Rights to Tort Law


It is not always appreciated that proven discrimination on the basis of race or sex may not amount to a tort and that even persistent racial or sexual harassment may not be enough to qualify for tort recovery. This Article explores the question of whether discriminatory and harassing conduct in the workplace is or should be considered outrageous conduct, actionable under the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress. In recent years, courts have taken radically different approaches to the issue, from holding that such claims are preempted to treating the infliction tort as a reinforcement of civil rights principles. The dominant approach views tort claims as mere "gap fillers" that should come into play only in rare cases that do not fit comfortably under other recognized theories of redress. To place the current approaches in perspective and determine the proper location for...

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Actor Network Theory


Actor network theory (ANT), also known as enrolment theory or the sociology of translation, emerged during the mid-1980s, primarily with the work of Bruno Latour,Michel Callon, and John Law. ANT is a conceptual frame for exploring collective socio technical processes, whose spokespersons have paid particular attention to science and technologic activity. Stemming from a Science and Technologies Studies (STS) interest in the elevated status of scientific knowledge and counter to heroic accounts or innovation models, ANT suggests that the work of science is not fundamentally different from other social activities. ANT privileges neither natural (realism) nor cultural (social constructivism) accounts of scientific production, asserting instead that science is a process of heterogeneous engineering in which the social, technical, conceptual, and textual are puzzled together (or juxtaposed) and transformed (or translated).

As one of many anti essentialist movements, ANT does not differentiate...

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